Thus, not only was the process of mechanisation confined to a few States, but even the pattern of mechanisation was different among the States Raj Nahur Bhai – From Street to Manufacturing. Here, we briefly discuss two such experiments: This was probably on account of the substantial mechanisation that has taken place in the major paddy-growing areas. Presently, the labour bank has 67 transplanters each unit costs about Rs 4,00, , three combine harvesters costing about Rs 25,00, per unit , and two baling machines costing Rs 2,50, per machine. The significant drop in sales of tractors, tillers, and pump sets that followed the modest growth of sales in the initial years weakened the Agro-Industries Corporation. The tractors owned by the labour bank are used on hire.

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Visit by YBhg Dato’ K.K Eswaran, 2012

Despite these numbers, tractors are used for tilling on only 23 per cent of the total cultivated area in the country ibid. The Wadakkanchery block panchayat, comprising nine village panchayats, was earlier an important eewaran region.

Power threshers and combine harvesters were introduced to Kerala only recently and their numbers in were small, at only threshers and combine harvesters. Neoliberal policy favours national, regional, and global integration of markets, but resists efforts to aggregate farm power. Data from the Food and Agriculture Organisation FAO for reveal almost the same pattern of geographic concentration.

Tan Sri Dato’ Sri Paduka Dr Lim Kok Wing

The share of agriculture and allied activities in State Domestic Product SDP fell from around 22 per cent in — to 8. The Green Army has a workshop facility and a team of six mechanics for the maintenance of machinery. The comparative picture of the status of mechanisation in agriculture in Kerala is the main theme of the fourth section.

Muttil is a village located in a hilly region where machinery cannot reach all the fields, and hence animals were used for tilling operations in areas beyond the reach of tractors and tillers.

Farm mechanisation, agrarian question, means of production, atomisation of farming, labour shortage, micro experiments, paddy, Kerala, village, Green Army.

In the initial years of the Agro-Industries Corporation, there was a modest but steady growth in the demand for tractors and tillers GoK As secondary sources provide only limited data, such as the stock of agricultural assets machinery, for examplewe have used data from a primary survey conducted in nine villages in the State in —13 see Harilal and Eswaran for details of the eswatan villages.


In other words, agriculture in Kerala remains underdeveloped in terms of its technological base, and has a high dependence on wage labour and the market. Thus, there was a substantial decline in the concentration of land alongside corresponding distribution of land, as evident from the increased number of ownership holdings in Kerala in the post-land reforms period.

Agrarian Question and Democratic Decentralization in Kerala

The second section of the article is a brief discussion of the agrarian question in Kerala, and serves as the background against which we analyse the issue of mechanisation. Human power and animal power are the mainstay of agricultural operations ewwaran the country. Manual labour for the same activities costs about Rs 7, eswran Rs 9, per acre. In so far as this fixed capital consists of draught animals, it requires continually the same, or nearly the same, expenditure for feed, etc.

Maintenance of the pumps and wswaran was carried out collectively, and the required manpower for maintenance was also provided by the associations. The physical characteristics of the region, such as those with respect to soil fertility, water availability, agro-climatic conditions, genetic resources, quality of labour, and traditional and modern knowledge of farming, all have much greater potential than is at present realised.

In the s, in many parts of the State, tenants stopped paying rent and became the de facto owners of the leased-in land. Inonly about 8, tractors were in use in India. Harilal and Eswaran The KKS is administered by an member executive committee, of which eswara are farmers, one is an agricultural officer, and one member an agricultural expert. The use of combine harvesters is absent in a majority of the States, and even lk they are used, their coverage is very limited.

Government of Kerala GoK n. Thus the organisation has been able to ensure regularity of employment and income, along with some features of formal sector employment, in terms of making jobs remunerative for its members. Kj after, the policy encouraged the adoption of labour-saving mechanisation. Hence the product is in general increasing in price, since the transfer of value to it is not calculated according to the eswarzn during which the fixed capital functions but according to the time during which it depreciates in value.


Thus the economy of Kerala is in the middle of a major structural shift, characterised by a substantial decline in the percentage share of agriculture in terms of both income and employment, and the emergence of the services sector as the mainstay of the economy.

For example, in the inundated paddy fields of Kuttanad and Kole, tillage is carried out by means of esaaran with cage wheels, whereas in the dry fields of Palakkad, tractors and cultivators are sufficient and cage wheels are not required.

Secondly, natural factors such as differences in soil and terrain in different regions of the State make it difficult to eswwaran a uniform technology or machinery throughout Kerala.

This decline has occurred across all regions of the State, including the Kuttanad and Kole areas, and Palakkad, with high levels of paddy productivity. Sometimes I wonder the origin of this gentleman; this gentleman is misleading and Indians, instigating damage towards the community. Restrictions due to seasonality have not affected tractors as eswarah as other machinery.

More than 80 per cent of farmers in these five villages employed machinery for these activities, but the use of machinery for these operations was absent or insignificant in the other four villages, that is, Bharanikkavu in Alappuzha district, Ezhome in Kannur district, Muttil in Wayanad district, and Pulimath in Thiruvananthapuram district.

The crisis in agriculture is best seen as part of a larger process of structural transformation of the Kerala economy which has blocked agrarian transition and requires thorough overhauling of the social organization of production for overcoming the present impasse.